mardi 27 mars 2012

Malagasy Affixes: Tovona, tovana, tsofoka malagasy


Mihomehy ny ankizy.

Look at the verb mihomehy = it is made of

mi-: prefix for active verb (present tense)

-om-: infix

hehy: root verb

Some Prefixes:

1-a- prefix for passive verbs: (vela) avela : abandonned

2-an-: prefix for nouns of places: Antananarivo

different from an (') - an (-) prepositions: in, for, into, inside, with,

an-tsena: in the market

an'ny olona: for people

3-ampaha-: with numeral cardinal adjectives: ampahafolo: tenth of,

4-andria-: prefix for names of people Andrianjafy

5-f- prefix for manner, instrument, habitual action: fifadiana: fasting, abstinence

6-faha- time prefix: (zaza) : fahazaza: the childhood

7-ha- prefix for abstract nouns: (avo) haavo: height, hadalàna: craziness

8-ha- prefix meaning till, up to: halohalika: up to the knees

9-hatra- prefix for adverbs: from, since, till: hatraiza: to where?

hatry ny maraina: till the morning

10-h(o) prefix for the future tense : handeha

11-i- prefix for preposition: ivoho: at the back

12-in- or im- prefixes for numeral adjectives: (roa) indroa - (valo) imbalo

13-ka- pejorative prefix for adjectives: kanosa (coward) , kamo (lazy)

14-ki- nominal prefix with negative meaning: kizitina: coleric

15-m : or ma - prefixes for adjectives : (ditra) maditra (naughty), (zoto) mazoto (eager)

16-ma- prefix for active verbs: (handro) mahandro: to cook

17-man- prefix for active verbs: (rora) mandrora : to spit

18-mana-: new prefix for verbs with progressive aspect manadala: fooling (someone), manamboatra: preparing, constructing

19-mi- prefix for intransitive active verbs, rarely transitive (aina) miaina (to breath), (joro) mijoro (to stand up)

20-mifam-; mifan-; mifamp-, complex prefixes for reciprocal verbs, mifampijery (to look at each other)

21-miha: prefix for aspects of verbs and adjectives: progressive aspect:

(very) mihavery: it is in the process of getting lost, forgotten,

(mainty) : mihamainty it is getting darker

22 mp- prefix for names of profession, work: mpanjaitra: taylor, mpampianatra: teacher

23-n(o) prefix for past time: nidina: to get down

24-sa- prefix for intensification: felika: safelika: to put across

25-tafa: prefix for verbs expressing involuntary or accidental action (it is resulting in) :

tafavoaka : got through,

tafatombina: got sitted

26-voa: prefix for passive verbs of finished actions done with the help of an external agent:

voatsongo: pinched

voakapoka: battered

27-t- prefix for past time or the origin: aiza: taiza?

28-tsi- negative prefix : tsimatimanota: untouchables (cast),

29-ra- prefix for family names or sometimes first name: Rakotonirina, Rajosefa: Joseph


30--a (o, y) for imperatives, midira (come in); lazao (tell it), vohay (open)

the personal pronouns complement:

31- -ko/-nao/-ny/-nay/-tsika/-nareo/-ndry zareo-(a)n'izy ireo

32--ana: suffix for name Mirana,

33--ana/ ina/ ena: sasana (to washed), lazaina (told), omena (given)

34--ka, -tra, -na: finals for nouns and verbs : endrika (face)/peratra (ring)/aina (life)- ezaka(to strive)/ akatra (to go up)/midina (to go down)

sometimes circumfixes:

35-o..ina/ana; a..ina/ana; an...ina/ana: avotana (saved)


36--amp- causative verbs: mampiakatra: lifting up

mampiseho: to demonstrate something

37--if- reciprocal verbs : enjika: mifanenjika (to run each after the other)

38--n-: ity : inty (here you are)

39--in-: vidy : vinidy (to buy)

40--re-: io: ireo , iny: ireny, ito: ireto, iry, irery (demonstrative adjectives)

41--om-: tany: tomany (to cry)

42--za-: atsy: izatsy, izy: izary, ito: izato; (demonstrative adjectives)